MLA Research & Style Manual
Citing Traditional Resources

The following formats and examples are offered as models for the "Works-Cited section (bibliography) of a research paper. They are based on the MLA Style Manual, Sixth Edition. To see the online guidelines presented at the MLA Web site, visit www.mla.org. Follow the prompts to "MLA Style" and "Frequently Asked Questions."

Refer to www.noodletools.com or www.citationmachine.net for additional assistance.


Remember to double space and indent all but first lines.

BOOKS BY ONE AUTHOR

Salinger, J. D. The Catcher in the Rye. New York: Bantam, 1951.
TWO OR MORE BOOKS BY THE SAME AUTHOR

Hoobler, Dorothy. Latin America: Tradition and Change. New York:

      Longman Publishing Group, 1991.

--- Mandella: The Man, The Struggle, The Triumph. New York: Watts,

      1992.
BOOKS BY TWO OR THREE AUTHORS

Brown, Nathan, and Sheryle A. Proper. The Everything Paying for

      College Book. Avon: Adams, 2005.
BOOKS BY THREE OR MORE AUTHORS

Gilman, Sandra, et Al. Hysteria Beyond Freud. Berkeley: University of

      California Press, 1993.

If there are more than three authors, you may list only the first author followed by the phrase et al. (the abbreviation for the Latin phrase "and others") in place of the other authors' names, or you may list all the authors in the order in which their names appear on the title page.
NO AUTHOR

Cultural Revolution in China. New York: Scribner, 1967.
BOOKS BY CORPORATE AUTHORS

Commission on the Arts. The Arts in Spanish Life. Madrid: U. of Madrid,

       1980.
BOOK WITH AN EDITOR INSTEAD OF AUTHOR

Thackery, Frank W. and John F. Findling, ed. Events That Changed

      The World In The Twentieth Century. Westport: Greenwood

      Press, 1995.
BOOK WITH AN AUTHOR AND AN EDITOR

Michelangelo, Buonarroti. I, Michelangelo Sculptor: an Autobiography

      through Letters. Ed. Stone, Irving and Jean Stone. Garden

      City: Doubleday, 1962.
ANTHOLOGY, COLLECTION OR COMPILATION

Jackson, Raymond, ed. Poets and Thieves. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1982.
WORK IN AN ANTHOLOGY, SIGNED EXERPT

Tyler, Anne. "Still Just Writing." The Writer on Her Work.

      Ed. Janet Sternburg. New York: Norton, 1980. 3-16.

Author of the work being cited. "Title of the work." Title of the
      Anthology. Editor(s) of the Anthology. Place of Publication:
      Publishing Company, Copyright Date. Pages.
MULTIVOLUME ANTHOLOGY, SIGNED EXERPT

Hayne, Alice Smith. "John Ciardi." American Poets Since World War II.

      Ed. Donald Greiner. Dictionary of Literary Biography. Detroit: Gale,

      1980. 8: 125-132.

Author of the work being cited. "Title of the work." Title of the
      original source. Editor(s) of the Anthology. Title of the Anthology.
      Place of Publication: Publishing Company, Copyright Date. Pages.
BOOK REVIEW

Dobrez, Cindy. Rev. of Extraordinary Essays by Tamara Orr.

      Booklist 1 Feb. 2006: 42
BOOK, INTRODUCTION, PREFACE, FORWARD OR AFTERWARD

Cronkite, Walter. Preface. 1984. By George Orwell. New York: Signet

      Classic, 1983.
ENCYCLOPEDIA/REFERENCE BOOK ARTICLE, SIGNED

Ashley, Maurice. "Charles II." Encyclopedia Americana, 1993 ed.

Volume and page numbers not necessary if articles are arranged alphabetically.
ENCYCLOPEDIA/REFERENCE BOOK ARTICLE, UNSIGNED

"Ginsburg, Ruth Bader."  Who's Who in America. 56th ed. 2002.
REFERENCE BOOK ARTICLE WITH EDITOR OR COMPILER

Benet, William Rose, ed. "Recessional." Reader's Encyclopedia.

      New York: Crowell, 1965.
ARTICLE FROM A MONTHLY MAGAZINE

Ramsey, Pamela. "Where's My Smiley Face?" MacWorld. Sept. 1997:

      86-94.
ARTICLE FROM A WEEKLY OR BI-WEEKLY MAGAZINE

Henry, Mary Ann. "Announcing Bus Changes With Flair."  Time. 4 July

      1991: 75-76.

When citing the date, list day before month; use a three-letter abbreviation of the month (e.g. Jan., Mar., Aug.).
ARTICLE FROM A JOURNAL WITH CONTINUOUS PAGINATION

Skater, Andrew. "Rollerblading on a Secondary Level."  Secondary

      Education 54 (1990): 113-125.
NEWSPAPER ARTICLE

•   Jones, Carol. "Striking a Pose." New York Times 15 Oct. 1997, late

            ed.: sec. 1: 35+.

•   Smith, Bob. "Schools Losing Ground." USA Today 5 May 2001: 5D.

Author. "Title of article." Title of Newspaper Date of Newspaper,
      edition: section: page.

Note: Newspaper titles are NOT followed by periods. If there is more than one edition available for that date (as in an early and late edition of a newspaper), identify the edition following the date (e.g. 17 May 1987, late ed.).
GOVERNMENT PUBLICATION

Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice.  Second Chance: Giving Kids

      A Chance To Make A Better Choice. Washington D.C.: U.S.

      Department of Justice, 2000.
RADIO AND TELEVISION PROGRAMS

The Last Voyage. Narr. Jacques Cousteau. Writ. and prod. Jacques

      Cousteau. PBS Special. WHYY, Philadelphia. 17 January 1972.
SOUND RECORDING

•   G. Kenny.Forever in Love. Arista Records, 1992.

•   Inglesias, Enrique.  "Hero." By Enrique Inglesias. Escape.

            Interscope Records, 2001.

•   Seinfeld, Jerry.  Stand-Up Comedy from Seinfeld, Seasons 1-6.

            CD. Castlerock Entertainment, 1993.

Composer, Conductor or Performer. Title of Recording or Title of Work.
            Artist or Artists, Medium (CD, Audiocassette, etc.).
            Manufacturer, Year of Issue.
MUSICAL COMPOSITION

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. Symphony. No. 40 K.550.
FILM OR FILM CLIP

The Picture of Dorian Gray. Dir. Albert Lewin. Perf. George Sanders and

      Donna Reed. Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, 1972.
VIDEOCASSETTE/DIGITAL VIDEODISC

•   Billy Budd. Dir. Peter Ustinov. 1962 Videocassette. Key Video, 1985.

•   It's a Wonderful Life. Dir. Frank Capra. Perf. James Stuart, Donna

            Reed, Lionel Barrymore, and Thomas Mitchell. 1946.

            DVD. Republic. 2001.
DOCUMENTARY OR VIDEO OR DVD

"Lindbergh: The Evidence Revealed." American Justice. Host Bill

      Curtis. 1994. Videocassette. A&E Home Video, 1998.

(1994 is the date that the program was broadcast, 1998 is the date the Video/DVD was released)
PAINTING, SCULPTURE, PHOTOGRAPH

Raphael. God The Father. Galleria Nazionale dell'Umbia. Raphael From

      Urbino to Rome by Chapman, Hugo, Tom Henry and Carol Plazzotta.

      London:National Gallery Company, 2004.

Artist's name. Title of painting of institution that houses work
      (e.g. museum). Complete publication information for the source
      in which the photograph appears (Title. Author. Place of Publication:
      Publishing Company, Date. Page. Plate number. etc.)
INTERVIEW

•   Breslin, Jimmy. Interview with Neal Conan. Talk of the Nation.

            National Public Radio. WBUR, Boston. 26 March 2002.

•   Taylor, Lawrence, Personal Interview. 28 Aug. 1994.
MAP OR CHART

New York. Map. Chicago: Rand 2005.
CARTOON OR COMIC STRIP

Handlesman, Walt. Cartoon. Newsday. 17 Feb. 2006. 44A.
ADVERTISEMENTS

Obsession for Men by Calvin Klein. Advertisement. Details.Apr.1998:27.

Name of Product, Company or Institution that is the subject of
      advertisement. Descriptive label. Publishing Information (Name of
      source. Date: page.)
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